like to first of all thank Frank Haslam for inviting me to
give this talk. I hope it will be interesting. I've tried to
make it a mix of some anecdotes about my early life at Soham
and some short account of my career in the pharmaceutical
industry for more than 50 years.
I've also tried to set that against a backdrop of what
was happening in the world of biotechnology throughout my
life, throughout many of our lives. Because that has been
an astounding story of science and development, especially
in the medical field. I'm very honoured to be asked to
give this talk in view of all the distinguished people
that have given talks in the past.
My career has really been
a fantastic journey, combining science and business.
But at the bottom of it all, Soham Grammar School was
really foundational to this success, especially the the
training that I got in science.
why did I call this From Soham to the Medicine Chest of
Well, New Jersey is known as the Medicine Chest of the
World because it has grown up over 150 years to be the
home to more than 300 biotechnology and 20 pharmaceutical
and medical technology companies.
Most of the world's top 20 firms have major facilities
And more than 150,000 highly qualified people live there and
work in this industry.
So it's a very dynamic environment for this this type of
My father's brother Len and my mother's brother Alan also attended
family has been part of Soham Grammar School for over a
century. The first member who attended was my grandfather,
Frederick J Talbot, who was mentioned at our Reunion by Phil
Green, and I'll come back to that.
Fred Talbot attended the Soham Moor [Endowed] School,
the precursor to Soham Grammar School, from 1909 until
1913. You can see a picture of the old school building in
My Dad, Harold, attended the school - I'm not exactly sure
year he entered, 1928 or 1929. Later on he became a
Governor, representing parents.
I entered in 1960, and Stephen, my brother entered in 1965.
I was born in 1949 and lived my early few years in Soham, then the
family moved to Ely in 1953.
This was a really amazing time in science because in that
year, 1953, Watson and Crick working at the University of
Cambridge, just down the road, discovered and published the
double helix structure of DNA.
This had been a goal of scientists for decades and many
people contributed to it, but they finally put the pieces of
the puzzle together and published a one-page paper in 1953.
With this structure, for which they won the Nobel Prize,
this discovery gave rise to the new field of Molecular
Biology, also known as Biotechnology.
This became a large part of my life.
In 1956 the Salk vaccine was introduced in the UK. I remember
waiting in line outside the Women's Institute Hall in Ely with my
Dad and my sister to get it. Steve, I don't think you were probably
old enough yet to get it.
a child I remember that disease was widespread. I myself had
measles, mumps, chickenpox, whooping cough and other
Living in Ely as a 5-7 year old child, I particularly
remember that in the High Street you could see young kids in
wheelchairs or walking with leg irons because they had
caught polio, an infectious disease.
The Bishop's Palace on the Palace Green near the Cathedral
was used as a home for disabled kids, especially polio
victims. These kids were out being shown around, getting the
air in Ely. I remember seeing this and being terrified of
I thought this was just an absolute miracle that I'm not going to
get this disease.
Now most infants are vaccinated
at birth and regularly throughout their early years against polio
and many other diseases.
We take it for granted these days.
It's hard to explain, especially today, when so many people are
unwilling or refusing to take the COVID vaccine.
For my part, my grandfather Fred Talbot gave me a cornet at the age
of seven and taught me to play.
grew up surrounded by music, the house was always full of
music. Maybe some of you remember my mother, Joan. She was a
gifted pianist and a piano teacher for many decades.
She'd had no formal music education. Girls didn't go to
college then and there happened to be a war on, but she took
private lessons with some of the music masters at Soham
Later on, she accompanied many musical productions at both
SGS and Ely High School.
My oldest sister Ros played the piano and the cello, and she
went to the Royal Academy of Music.
I joined the Soham Band when I was eight years old and I continued
being a member until I went to university in 1967.
At the end of the war when he returned to Soham, both of the bands
had lost many of their bandsmen in the war. They decided in 1921 to
combine the two bands as the Soham Comrades Band 100 years
ago today. Fred served as Bandmaster for over 50 years until 1973.
granddad was a major influence on my life, both for the
music but also in general. As I said, he went to SGS. He had
been a cornet player in the Soham Excelsior Band from the
age of eight, prior to WW1.
In 1914, after war broke out, he joined the Army. Because of
his cornet playing he was put in charge of the Regimental
Band - incredible, because he was very young, in his late
He served in France from 1915 to 1918. I tried to track down
exactly where he was but I couldn't really find out
In the old picture from Armistice Sunday 1921, a 100 years ago, you
can see my grandfather conducting the band. On the ground behind him
is his cornet on which he was going play the Last Post and Reveille
in memory of the Fallen. This became a tradition at SGS. Many
of you must remember the Remembrance Services at school. I played
the Last Post and Reveille for several years in that
service. My granddad coached me on how to play them properly.
On the right you can see in 1966 him receiving an Honorary
Membership of the London College of Music for his services to brass
bands. It is being presented by William Lloyd Webber - you may have
heard the name Lloyd Webber. He was the father of Andrew Lloyd
Webber, the famous composer of musicals, and of Julian Lloyd Webber,
the famous cellist. At that time Lloyd Webber was the Director of
the London College of Music.
So with all this musical background, and some interest on my
part, I was really torn about which way my career should
Should I pursue Science, which was very interesting - I
mentioned the Salk vaccine story? Or should I go into Music
and follow my sister to college.
Brian Halls [SG55] was a trumpet player who won a place at
the Royal Academy of Music. I thought, well, if he can do
it, I can. But I still couldn't make up my mind what what to
do and what A Levels to do.
After many discussions I opted to do Chemistry, Physics and
Maths, having been told that if I wanted to do Music, I
could still do it after A Levels.
at that time was a very musical city. There was the
Cathedral Choir singing every day in the Cathedral. The
King's School had a very strong music tradition. And of
course Ely was very close to Cambridge, which was a musical
There was a thriving amateur music scene in Ely and the
annual Ely Music Festival. My arch rival in the recorder
section was Eric Pearson [SG60], now in Kuujjuaq, Canada.
There was a strong Ely Choral Society under the
direction of Hilary Dewar [EHS Music until 1967]. They
staged several magnificent concerts in the Cathedral. Peter
Scott, who I think was a member, could confirm that that was
a very thriving society.
Hilary Dewar also put together an
orchestra of local musicians for these concerts. This
included my mother, plus members of the Cambridge Music Society.
Brian Halls and I made up the trumpet section. I also played in
the County Youth Orchestra in Cambridge, where we practiced and
gave concerts in the Corn Exchange on the Market Place.
I had quite a lot of contact with
the King's Ely boys. One was a very brilliant flute player, but he
had to give it up because he had asthma. He took up the cello
instead. He told me once "Well, that maybe very interesting, that
Science, Michael, but you'll get more reward out of going into
Music." He became a professional cellist in a London
talked several times to Ted Armitage about this and he said
"Well, Michael, from what I've seen, you're a good
scientist." Nobody had ever talked to me like that before.
He went on "If you take my advice, you will follow the
science and keep music as a hobby."
And I realised that I would only be able to become a
scientist if I studied science.
So the outcome was I followed the Science.
went to University College London [UCL,
on the left], as Frank has already mentioned.
I got a degree in Chemistry in 1970 and followed that with a
PhD in Chemistry in 1973.
Apart from attending college in London, I also loved the
access to all the culture, the museums, the opera houses,
and the symphonies.
This was kind of a good compromise for me.
So reality hits, I finished my PhD - time to get a job. It was 1973.
Geography got into my life and affected me more than one
I had good friends in the Geography Department and they
invited me to a party in Oxford Street in December 1969. And
there I met Elaine, who was studying French and German at
UCL (which would turn out to be very useful) and the rest is
We got married in 1971. And we have been on one long trip
After UCL, Elaine studied Law and qualified as a solicitor
(this would also become very useful later on).
There was a recession on, there was double-digit inflation.
There was the oil shock, rationing of fuel and other things.
This was a tough time to get a job.
But I found the work very narrow in scope. I wanted to get a much
bigger overview of the industry beyond the lab. That was really only
possible through a new position at the headquarters of Hoechst in
Frankfurt where I was fortunate enough to be offered a job on kind
of a management training track.
somehow I managed it. My first job was as a research chemist
for Hoechst AG, one of the big German chemical companies.
They had just built a new lab in Milton Keynes, where I went
to work in drug discovery and early drug development for
Hoechst was the number one company in pharmaceuticals at
that time. It offered a lot of opportunity.
I liked working in the lab. It was very exciting, making new
compounds and and testing them for biological activity.
And so Elaine and I packed our bags and went to Germany.
Our daughter Tamsin was born in November, in Bad Soden.
went out in June 1981. It was a tough beginning, I couldn't
speak the language!
I took one-on-one German lessons for three, four hours in
the mornings, which was very tiring. And then I went to the
office in the afternoon.
Elaine followed in September 1981, seven months pregnant. We
did a crash course in birthing and parenting together in
German with a lot of long words, which I won't even try to
pronounce in this talk. I was very thankful for Elaine's
linguistic fluency in German.
We spent Christmas as a new family in Germany, and celebrated the
New Year in German style, with Sekt sparkling wine and fireworks in
Our son Christopher was also born in Germany, in 1983.
So I travelled globally to meet the medical directors in the main
countries and their Regulatory Affairs specialists. They are the
people who deal with the the government approval authorities in each
country and to try to understand what their needs are.
first job in Germany was in global clinical development. I'm
not a medical doctor, as someone mentioned earlier, but
Hoechst was developing drugs all over the world. They had a
network of about 30 medical departments in major countries
around the globe. All of that activity needed to be planned
My initial role was to try to streamline the clinical
development and regulatory approval process across the major
countries. This meant changing the model from the one they'd
been using where the first goal was to get approval in
Germany and then worry about the rest of the world later. It
was leading to huge delays in getting drugs on the market in
the US and other countries.
I proposed a way to speed up development, and also that clinical
development programmes should be planned globally from the
started what we called International Project Groups, with
members from key countries sitting together around the table
or in those days communicating by fax or phone as there was
no email then.
We started to implement that in 1986 and it was a great
In that two years I learned quite a lot of key skills and knowledge
that were invaluable in preparing me for a senior management role -
such as visiting many manufacturing plants, learning financial
planning and analysis skills and growing my network both inside and
outside the company.
of that I was recommended to become a member of the Office
of the Corporate Board that reported to the Board Chairman.
This was a big deal, especially since I was not German.
My job consisted of preparing briefing papers for the Board
on pharmaceutical matters, vetting investment projects and
doing liaison work with other business divisions and
affiliates of Hoechst around the world.
Here's a quick thumbnail of what was taking place in the
biotechnology field during those years.
In 1982, the FDA approved Genentech's human insulin. This was a huge
breakthrough because insulin had been in short supply for decades.
I'll talk more about that later.
A big breakthrough came
based on the Watson and Crick work in the 1950s -
recombinant DNA technology was invented and developed in
1972. This was finding methods to splice together the DNA
strands from different organisms and then using that to
grow and produce medicines on an industrial scale.
In 1976 Genentech was
founded, the first company to use the technology to
manufacture pharmaceutical products, such as Somatostatin
hormone, or tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) which is a
compound for dissolving blood clots after thrombosis.
In 1983, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was invented. This is
an amplification technology, allowing billions of copies of a small
amount of DNA to be made and analysed.
Today everybody has heard of PCR because of the COVID test. And in
1986, the first recombinant vaccine came to the market for Hepatitis
next career step was business development. I joined
Hoechst's Business Development and Licensing department in
1989, it was then just three or four people.
I was responsible for the United States territory.
I said "What do you mean? Companies, academia,
They said "Oh, everything."
So this got me involved in frequent travel to the US.
I think it's the most interesting job in the industry, because it
combines science and global business. Companies do it and it has
become an essential part of the industry model these days because it
offers access to external innovation from small companies and
what is business development?
Well, simply put, it's the creation of partnerships with
other companies to enhance the growth and profitability of
And it can cover multiple areas of the industry, from
research collaborations, through technology and product
It can be in manufacturing. There can be joint ventures
between companies, mergers and acquisitions, or it can be
co-development or co-commercialization alliances.
Even the biggest companies can't spend enough money and hire enough
scientists to make all of the important discoveries. It gives access
to funding for small companies, it's a way of cost and risk sharing.
It's a way of accessing development expertise in certain specialist
areas. It can give you access to sales or marketing or distribution
channels. It can help you shorten development times and extend
product life cycles.
So how do you actually go about that? There's really only one way to
do it. Because drug development is such a complicated and
multifaceted activity you need cross-functional teams, combining
experts from research and development, marketing and sales, legal,
patent, and manufacturing and regulatory affairs. The business
development manager leads and manages the team. So it's a really
interesting role because you're seeing projects and the company
working together as a whole.
A century ago this year,
Frederick Banting, working at the University of Toronto,
discovered insulin and, together with Charles Best,
developed a process to extract it from pig pancreas, which
Banting showed that insulin could be used for the
treatment of diabetes. For this work he was awarded the
Nobel Prize for Medicine. The patents were sold to the
University of Toronto for a nominal $1.
The university subsequently licensed the technology
to several companies around the world, including Hoechst,
to make insulin available to diabetic patients.
my 25 years in business development in the industry I worked
on and was responsible for more than 100 deals.
These are some of my favourite deals.
The two in red, I'll talk about in more detail, but they
covered the time period from 1992 to 2010. It covered
many different areas of technology and medicine.
This was Hoechst's very first biotechnology collaboration. I think
we committed $30 million to that.
very first deal I did was with a company called Triplex
Pharmaceuticals, which was a spin-out from the Baylor
College of Medicine in Houston, Texas.
I talked earlier about the double helix, that Watson and
Crick discovered in 1953. Triplex was trying to develop a
triple helix technology. This involves taking short strands
of nucleotides - this is the material that the DNA is made
up of - and using the third strand to bind to the double
helix and block certain parts of the genetic code.
The gene expression arising from this collaboration was
focused on viral diseases. We were very interested in those
days in the AIDS HIV area.
Pfizer had the device but no insulin supply. But Hoechst in Germany
had a recombinant DNA process for making insulin. So we made a deal
to work together on this. This included creating a legal joint
venture to build a large insulin manufacturing plant. The whole
project required a total of something like 20 different contracts.
most complex deal I ever orchestrated was Pfizer for inhaled
insulin. This is the company that now has one of the COVID
vaccines. You can see the structure of insulin in the box on
the left of the slide as two strands of peptides [brown and
green] linked by disulphide bridges [yellow].
Pfizer in the mid 1990s was developing an inhaler to deliver
insulin to the lung. This administration route is a way of
raising the insulin levels very rapidly and controlling
blood sugar in a very rapid fashion.
The disadvantage of this approach is that you need large
quantities of insulin, tons of it, because it's not a very
Unfortunately the inhaled insulin failed in the market. For some
reason, despite all the market research that had been done, patients
didn't want to use it, and doctors didn't want to prescribe it. So
it was withdrawn from the market.
But the plant that was built then is still used for making insulin.
In fact two more similar plants have been built since. The old
way of making insulin was to extract it from the pancreas of pigs.
It's a pretty messy process as you can imagine. You need thousands
of pig pancreases to get one pound of insulin.
With the new recombinant DNA process the three plants in Frankfurt
are now producing nine [US] tons of insulin a year, that's 18,000
pounds. To get that much insulin from pigs you would need 400
million pigs - there just aren't enough pigs in the world to do
And keep in mind that there's two other companies that make insulin,
Eli Lilly in the USA and Novo Nordisk of Denmark - these three
companies between them are making something like 50 tons of insulin
stayed in Business Development. The companies changed but
the groups got bigger. In 2000 to 2004 [with Aventis] I
ended up with something like 60 business development staff
at corporate sites in the US, France, Germany and Japan, and
local groups in key countries in Europe, Latin America,
Southeast Asia, and so on. We completed many partnering
deals across the globe.
In 2004 Aventis itself was acquired by Sanofi of France.
It's now just known as Sanofi. I left the company and I
joined a Canadian company called Biovail Corporation,
headquartered Toronto, Canada. I stayed in New Jersey, but
frequently went to Canada on trips.
In 2006 the very first cancer vaccine for preventive use came to the
market. This was Gardasil, and it prevented infections by the human
papilloma virus (HPV).
we're going to catch up with the technology advances in the
next decade, 1993 to 2013.
These of course, are just highlights.
In 1993 a company called Chiron got Betaseron approved as
the first new treatment for multiple sclerosis and this was
made by genetic engineering.
In 1999 the complete genetic sequence of the human
chromosome was published. This had been an ongoing project
on a global basis for about a decade.
In the early 2000s the whole field of tissue engineering or
re-engineering came up where you can grow pieces of skin or organs
from stem cells. These are the basic cells that carry all the
genetic information needed to make an organism.
And in 2011 as you can see in the slide, a trachea was grown from
stem cells. This part of the respiratory system in the throat was
transplanted into a human for the first time at the Karolinska
Institute in in Stockholm, Sweden.
In 2013, there was another major breakthrough in technology with the
discovery of CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short
Palindromic Repeats). This is a new and very powerful technique for
gene editing which has made the whole process much, much faster and
This vaccine was developed in record time, only about nine months.
Before, it had taken years to develop vaccines. It became available
at the end of 2020.
2018 - this is before the COVID 19 virus was detected and
identified - Pfizer and BioNtech had already signed a
collaboration deal to develop new immunotherapies for cancer
and infectious disease and their initial target was
However, after the the SARS COVID sequence was published on
January 19 2020 and the pandemic was declared, BioNtech
switched its work to focus on developing a COVID-19 vaccine.
The partners Pfizer and BioNtech expanded their
collaboration to cover that, with BioNtech being
responsible for creating the novel messenger RNA that would
be used and manufacturing it. Pfizer was responsible for
conducting the clinical trials.
This and the simultaneous development of other vaccines such as the
AstraZeneca vaccine, working in collaboration with Oxford
University, and the Moderna vaccine and others - this is just a
miracle of science how all this was achieved in such a short
And it's just a measure of what can be done when people across the
globe put their minds and their energy to work together.
At Bayer Schering I had a pretty big team and we completed many
deals in areas of strategic focus such as cardiovascular disease,
oncology and women's healthcare.
to my career, the final stop in Big Pharma.
I joined Bayer of Germany after being in the US for almost
20 years. Bayer hired me at the end of 2006 to become their
new Head of Global Business Development after they acquired
Schering AG in late 2006.
So Elaine and I moved to Berlin in the Spring of 2007. We
bought an apartment right in the middle of the former East
Berlin. This in itself was an amazing experience because
Germany had been divided by the Wall for all the time we'd
been in West Germany, until the fall of the Berlin Wall in
But by 2010, I was ready to move on.
And we've been able to travel the world together for business and
and I went back to the US, in New Jersey, where we combined
our knowledge and expertise to found an independent
consulting company called Partners in Pharma.
We've been doing that now for 11 years, offering independent
advice and business development support to the global
Over the course of my career, and all those deals that I
did, I got to know thousands of people across the global
industry, and companies from Brazil, to Korea, to Japan to
Australia, India and China. We use that large network of
contacts to identify and create deals for companies which
ask us for help. We can work from almost anywhere with a
good internet and cell phone connection.
We're still going but we're winding down.
has given me a bit more time.
I've had time to pick up the trumpet again, after a break of
The photo on the left is with Eric Pearson in Kuujjuaq,
Canada, as he mentioned.
Three years ago, Elaine and I went up to visit and we
were able to play again for the first time in 50 years.
The other photo is me having a couple of sessions with
Japanese colleagues playing in a jazz band in Tokyo.
coming full circle, at the end of the day, I hope I've been
able to make some small contribution to improving
healthcare, and improving the lives of patients across the
None of this would have been possible without Soham Grammar
School and the foundation that I received there, and all the
people who helped me on my way after that.
Coming back to SGS and a few of the staff members who particularly
Slug/Luke Riley. I remember the first day, the
first French lesson with him. He came into the room and he
said "Open your books to the middle page and divide it into
16. I'm going to tell you all the sounds in French."
We had to repeat this every time he came into the
class A ah e i and all the rest. I remember that he
had absolutely no tolerance for mistakes and copying words.
If you didn't correctly copy a word you were in real
And to this day, I check and recheck entries on the forms or
numbers at the start of any calculation to make sure that
the input is correct. I really put that down to his
RAT Taylor has been mentioned a couple of times. I remember
his first lessons in Geography - three experiments to prove the
earth is round. (It was the little ship going over the horizon.
That was the first one. You know, the way the ship disappears over
the horizon, and then the funnel with the smoke is the last part
The second one was the Bedford Levels experiment where you put
posts into the ground. You knock them in to the same amount and
then you look at the tops of them and they're not exactly aligned.
I'm forgetting the third one - maybe somebody can help out
Later on, I guess it was when I was in the Sixth Form, he asked me
to be Captain of what was euphemistically known as 'The Reserves'
team. These were the the boys who couldn't play football well
enough to be in the First or Second XIs. We were more or less left
to our own devices to organise ourselves to play some football. He
said "I'm asking you to do this because I know that you can
organise this team." And that was the very first experience I had
of trying to organise or lead a team.
I always remember that because as my career progressed, I was in a
position of leading and having to lead larger and larger and ever
more complex teams. But I think it's the same set of skills that
you need. It's communication. It's understanding, it's listening
to people, the kind of soft skills that you need in business
development to get deals done.
Graham 'Jack' Speed [Geography 1961-65] was also mentioned
earlier. I remember in the Fourth Form classroom learning about the
USA and Canada, Australia, China and India and all those far
flung countries. And I'm thinking, what's all the use of this? When
am I ever going to use this? By the time I was 35, I'd been to
pretty much all of these countries and many of them multiple times,
ending up here living in the United States. So that learning was in
the end very useful for me.
other characters here.
I think some of you will recognise Michael Ades, the
Music teacher [1960-66]. I think he was new to the school in
1960, the year I started. He encouraged my music greatly, my
trumpet playing, and I took piano lessons with him and some
JROT - John O'Toole [English 1963-66]. I'm sorry that
he is not able to join us at the last minute. He did join us
last year and I was very happy to open up an email
correspondence with him. I was able to remind him of a few
of the lessons that he had given us, where he really opened
my mind to English literature and the power of words.
To finish here are the three teachers at Soham who were really
instrumental in my Sixth Form science education.
And last but not least Peter Scott [Maths 1960-72] who is
with us today. I think we called you BooBoo, Peter! You were
a fine teacher and you really showed me the power and the beauty of
calculus, which was really extremely important in my future career
in science, because so many parts of physics and chemistry do use
that tool for their analysis and implementation.
Armitage of course [Headmaster: Physics: 1945-72]. He
had such a clear way of explaining physics, that it seemed
easy. Starting from what seemed to be difficult problems,
you seemed to be able to unravel them easily. I remember him
saying "Well, it looks tricky, but let's start from first
principles and apply them to what we know."
Gareth/'Basil' Wood [Chemistry 1964-72]. He was the
one that really got me interested in Chemistry. He was so
infectiously enthusiastic for his subject. I told him at the
Old Boys dinner in 2012, the 40 years Anniversary Dinner
after the Grammar School closed, that he was really the
inspiration for me to go and study Chemistry. I'd like to
acknowledge his wife Judith who would have joined us today
had she not had a prior engagement.
but not least, I have to thank my wife, Elaine, who
has stood by me on this long journey across different
countries, continents, kids changing schools and, and then
for the last 11 years really supporting me and working
together in our partnership.
John Dimmock SG59: Michael, thank you very much. That's been
fantastic. A lot of technology, it just shows you how far things
have gone in our lifetimes. Things that were unimaginable when we
were at school. It's been a great journey, and you've been part of
it. Thank you. [Applause]
Frank Haslam SG'59': Alan Dench SG67 was sorry he had to go.
For him your talk brought back great memories of his time working
for a Johnson & Johnson subsidiary in New Brunswick, New Jersey
in the 1980s "I can concur it's an exciting industry to work in."
Prof Geoff Fernie SG59 in Toronto says "Brilliant talk Michael",
which I'm sure we all echo. [more messages like this have been
Dennis Wilkins SG53 asks "Michael, can you give us some insights
into what you feel AstraZeneca did right and what they could have
done better with the COVID vaccine?"
MY: It's interesting you should ask that because when I was
working with Aventis, our head of Global Marketing at that time is
now the CEO of AstraZeneca. It's a difficult question to answer,
because we don't really know all the facts. But let's say it has
been reported that there were some irregularities in their clinical
There were some very confusing reports that came out early on. They
weren't sure, I think, in some trials, what dose had actually been
used, or they thought they might have used some vaccine vials that
hadn't had the correct amount in, or something. It was all
But unfortunately the outcome has been that the AstraZeneca vaccine
is not yet approved in the United States. We have three approved
vaccines, the Moderna, the Pfizer/BioNtech, and the Johnson &
Johnson. AstraZeneca is not yet approved here. I don't even know the
status of it to be honest.
I know in the UK, the AstraZeneca vaccine has been used
widely, and I'm sure it is an excellent vaccine. And it's been
widely used in in many parts of the world. But as far as the US Food
& Drugs Administration is concerned, I think they have been very
cautious about moving it forward. So that's about the best answer I
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